The Sultanate of Showa, established around 896, was one of the oldest local Muslim states.
It was centered in the former Shewa province in central Ethiopia.
Overall, the linguistic impact of the Cushitic languages is more marked toward the south.
The term "Habashat" appears to refer to a group of peoples, rather than a specific ethnicity.
He believed the etymology of Habesha must have derived from the Mehri language, which means “gatherers” (as in gatherers of incense).
It was not until long after Aksumite kingdom had ended that Gulf Arab travelers and geographers began to describe the Horn region as Al-Habash.
Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeila in northern Somalia and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.Before the adoption of Christianity in fourth century the religion of the Axumites was a polytheistic religion derived from the Arabic religion which believed that many gods controlled the natural forces of the universe.Linguistic analysis further indicates that the Ethiopian Semitic languages have retained a Cushitic substratum, which also belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family.For them, Habeshas likely meant people who collected incense in South Arabia.Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Greek-speaking Egyptian traveler who visited the Kingdom of Aksum in 525, also made no reference to Habesha. Eduard Glaser, an Austrian epigraphist and historian, "Habesha" was originally used to refer to a kingdom in southeastern Yemen located east of the Hadhramaut kingdom in what is now Al Mahrah Governorate.